History of Pandemics in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Century


  • Adewunmi J. Falode
  • Moses J. Yakubu
  • Olusegun J. Bolarinwa




This work is the historical analysis of pandemics in the Twentieth and Twenty-first century. It shows that the influenza virus has been responsible for major pandemic outbreaks in the two centuries. The work shows that bacteria and viruses, especially Yersinia pestis and the influenza virus, have been responsible for the outbreaks of major pandemics in recorded history. It carries-out a compre- hensive and extensive analysis of the various impacts of historical and contemporary pandemics like the Plague of Justinian, Bu- bonic plague, Spanish flu, Cholera pandemics and also the novel COVID-19 had on the trajectory of world history. The work shows that such pandemics profoundly affects political, economic, social, religious, technological, health and educational developments in states in the post-pandemic periods. Additionally, this work com- prehensively identified the commonalities among the pandem- ic-causing diseases in the Twentieth and Twenty-first century. It shows, among other things, that pandemic-causing diseases usu- ally strikes in waves and that globalization plays an active role in the transmission of infection in the two centuries. The work concludes by showing that pandemics usually strikes in three waves and based on this assertion the world should be prepared to respond to the second and third waves of the COVID-19.