NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE FUNCTION OF SUSTAINABLE WATER USE
Nanotechnology, as contemporary field of research in forming of materials and devices on the level of molecule and atoms, is founding broad utilization in different scientific and engineering domains. The influence of nanotechnology on the development of contemporary human society has got a significant potential in domains as economy, environment protection, health and improvement of the quality of life. The need for fresh water as a necessary resource for living world, as well as the economic activity on the level of humanity is growing in the conditions of increasing population, increasing economic activities and increasing pollution. In that sense the conventional methods for water treatment may become ineffective for providing sustainable utilization of water resources in the future. Nanotechnology as a contemporary scientific and engineering field is considered efficient and potentially, the only solution for sustainable utilization of fresh water in the future. The efforts in nanotechnology utilization for sustainability of fresh water resources mean comprehensive approach and clarity in defining goals as well as the ways for their realization. The basic expectations of nanotechnology in the sense of fresh water resources utilization are directed to enhancement of fresh water availability, increase of efficiency of fresh water delivery and enabling next generation systems for fresh water quality monitoring. The increase of fresh water availability by nanotechnology means development of filtering systems and development of membrane systems, inverse osmosis for water desalinization and catalysts for water treatment. Efficiency of fresh water delivery based on nanotechnology means reducing energy necessary for its transportation, developing system of pipes and components which are easier, stronger and which will last longer as well as to provide cheap materials which improve energy efficiency for heating and cooling. All these processes for nanotechnology development aiming to provide sustainable fresh water resources utilization require significant efforts on scientific and engineering level in order to be utilized in everyday life. This paper aims to research the state of the art of nanotechnology development in the domain of sustainable utilization of fresh water resources.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, fresh water resources, sustainability.