Quality of energy-reduced muffin produced with whole-grain wheat flour, safe for diabetics’ nutrition


  • Slavica Grujic
  • Bozana Odzakovic
  • Snjezana Bozic


The aim of this research was developing a formulation for muffins,
produced with whole-grain wheat flour, suitable and safe for nutrition of people
with carbohydrate metabolism disorders (diabetics). Recommendations for
diabetics’ nutrition were analysed to develop a cake of appropriate quality and
safe for consumption. The following matters were determined: (a) the essential
parameters of technological and sensory quality of the final product; (b) the
nature and quantity of basic ingredients, making five different model-samples
of muffins; (c) moisture, ash, fat, salt, starch, protein, fibre and sugar content of
cakes; (d) the quality of muffins was evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis;
(e) nutritive composition was compared with similar products from the market.
The basic chemical composition and the achieved quality of muffin-samples
were analysed after production, and the best one was selected, produced
combining following ingredients: 32% whole-grain wheat flour; 30% water;
10% skimmed milk; 9% fructose; 5% sunflower oil; 6.5% eggs; 3.2% fatreduced
cocoa powder; 3% yeast; 0.3% salt; 0.3% flavours (chocolate, vanilla,
rum); 0.16% additives mixture. The cakes had a high overall sensory quality
(4.73±0.22 points of possible 5), characteristic regular shape and volume,
uniform pores distribution, moderate elasticity and moisture during chewing,
uniform dark brown colour, pleasant harmonious aroma and sweetish taste
of baked chocolate cake. It was concluded that the muffins were suitable and
safe for diabetics nutrition regarding basic ingredients content (whole-grain
wheat flour, skimmed milk, fructose, vegetable oil) and nutritional composition
with reduced content of: energy 30-54%, fats 30-79%, sugar 67-80%, when
compared to five similar chocolate cakes, available on the market.