ALTERNATIVE PECTIN PRODUCTION METHODS AND SOURCES
Pectin is a polysaccharide, found in the cell wall of high plants that imparts flexibility and mechanical strength to plants by interacting with other cell wall elements. It is widely used in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, as thickener, texturizing, emulsifying, stabilizing and gelling agent. The most commonly used method for pectin production is the acid extraction method. Due to the low extraction efficiency with limited yield, many methods have been developed such as enzyme, microwave and ultrasound-assisted extractions and subcritical water extraction. Pectin is commercially produced from mainly citrus peels followed by apple pomace, sunflower head and sugar beet pulps and the properties of the pectin depend on the source that are isolated from. Finding alternative sources methods are necessary that can compete with the production cost and properties of the commercial pectin sources. In this study, alternative pectin production methods, pectin sources and possibilities for the industrial use of the pectin produced with them were reviewed.