• Snježana Uletilović Banja Luka University, Faculty of Medicine, Save Mrkalja 14, 78000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska



The influence of extraction techniques with different solvents on the contents of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of extracts of grape, sour cherry and black currant is analyzed in the study. Antioxidant activity of the extracts on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hidrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined by spectrophotometry. The total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay while total flavonoid content was measured spectrophotometrically with the application of AlCl3. The changes in the value of these parameters after deep-freezing of these fruits were also observed.

A high content of total phenols and flavonoids was detected in extracts. Acetone proved to be the best agent for extraction of grape and sour cherry while the highest content of total phenols with black currant was obtained by methanol. The content of total phenols in fruits in frozen state increased while the content of total flavonoids and of antioxidant activity decreased. The obtained results show that the extracts of grape, cherry and black currant can be used as natural antioxidants.


[1] A. Parkash, Antioxidant activity, Analyticl. Progress, Vol. 19 (2001) 1−6.

[2] J. J. Macheix, A. Fleuriet, J. Billot, Fruit Phenolics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA 1990.

[3] J. B. Harborne, Plant Phenolics, In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 8 (E. A. Bell, B. V. Charlwood, edit.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980.

[4] J. Pokorny, N. Yanishlieva, M. Gordon, Woodhead Publishing Limited, EDS., Cambridge, England 2001, 22−70.

[5] J. Beattie, A. Crozier, G. G. Duthie, Potential health benefits of berries, Current Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 1 (2005) 71−86.

[6] Q. K. Wu, J. M. Koponen, H. M. Mykkanen, A. R. Torronen, Berry phenolic extracts modulate the expression of p21WAF1 and Bax but not Bcl-2 in HT-29 colon cancer cells., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55 (2007) 1156−1160.

[7] R. Karjalainen, M. Anttonen, N. Saviranta, D. Stewart, G. J. McDougall, H. Hilz, P. Mattila, R. Törrönen, A review on bioactive compounds in black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) and their potential health-promoting properties, Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 839 (2009) 301−307.

[8] J. Krisch, L. Ördögh, L. Galgóczy, T. Papp, C. Vágvölgyi, Anticandidal effect of berry juices and extracts from Ribes species, Central European Journal of Biology, Vol. 4 (2009) 86–89.

[9] C. S. Ough, M. A. Amerine, Methods for analysis of musts and wines, Johan Wiley & sons, New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore, 1988.

[10] Z. Jia, T. Tang, J. Wu, The determination of flavonoids content in mulberry and scavenging effect on superoxide radicals, Food Chemistry, Vol. 64 (1999) 555.

[11] W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier, C. Berset, Use of the radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity, Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, Vol. 28 (1995) 25−30.

[12] J. Y. Lin, C. Y. Tang, Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in selected fruits and vegetables, as well as their stimulatory effects on mouse splenocyte proliferation, Food Chem., Vol. 101 (2007) 140–147.

[13] M. Keinanen, Comparison of methods for the extraction of flavonoids from birch leaves (Betula pendula Roth.) carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 41 (2003) 1986−1990.

[14] U. B. Jagtap, S. N. Panaskav, V. A. Bapat, Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity and Phenol Content in Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Fruit Pulp, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 65 (2010) 99−104.

[15] A. Szajdek, E. J. Borowska, Bioactive compounds and health-promotingproperties of berry fruits, A Review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 63 (2008) 147–156.

[16] S. Benvenuti, F. Pellati, M. Melegari, D. Bertelli, Polyphenols, anthocyanins,ascorbic acid, and radical scavenging activity of Rubus, Ribes, and Aronia, Journal of Food Science, Vol. 69 (2004) 164-169.