STUDY OF THE OPTICAL POWER OF NANOPHOTONIC SOFT CONTACT LENSES BASED ON POLY (2- HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE) AND FULLERENE
In this paper results of comparative study of the optical power of soft contact lenses (SCL) made of standard material for SCL and nanophotonic materials with different measurement techniques used for the final contact lens controllers are presented. Three types of nanophotonic soft contact lenses were made of standard polymacon material (Soleko SP38TM) incorporated with fullerene C60, fullerol C60(OH)24 and fullerene metformin hydroxylate C60(OH)12(OC4N5H10)12.
For the purposes of material characterization for potential application as soft contact lenses, the optical properties of the soft contact lenses were measured by Rotlex and Nidek device. With Rotlex device the following optical results were obtained: optical power and map of defects, while with the Nidek device: optical power, cylinder power and cylinder axis. The obtained values of optical power and map of defects showed that the optical power of synthesized nanophotonic soft contact lens is same to the nominal value, while this was not the case for the standard soft contact lens. Also, the quality of the nanophotonic soft contact lens is better than the standard one. Hence, it is possible to synthesize new nanophotonic soft contact lenses of desired optical characteristics, implying possibilities for their application in this field.
 P. C. Nicolson, J. Vogt, Evolution, Biomaterials, Vol. 22 (2001) 3273–3283.
 J. P. Montheard, M. Chatzopoulos, D. Chappard, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA): chemical properties and applications in biomedical fields, Journal of Macromolecular Science - Reviews in Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics C, Vol. 32 (1992) 1–34.
 N. A. Peppas, Y. Huang, M. Torres-Lugo, J. H. Ward, J. Zhang, Physicochemical foundations and structural design of hydrogels in medicine and biology, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 2 (2000) 9–29.
 D. Fonn, P. Situ, T. Simpson, Hydrogel lens dehydration and subjective comfort and dryness ratings in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers, Optometry & Vision Science, Vol. 76 (1999) 700–4.
 N. Pritchard, D. Fonn, Dehydration, lens movement and dryness ratings of hydrogel contact lenses, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, Vol. 15 (1995) 281–2866.
 M. R. Lattimore Jr., An apparent pH-induced effect on extended wear hydrogel lens water content, Optometry & Vision Science, Vol. 73 (1996) 689−694.
 D. H. Ren, W. M. Petroll, J. V. Jester, J. Ho-Fan, H. D. Cavanagh, The relationship between contact lens oxygen permeability and binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human corneal epithelial cells after overnight and extended wear, The CLAO Journal, Vol. 25 (1999) 81–95.
 Q. Garrett, H. J. Griesser, B. K. Milthorpe, R. W. Garrett, Irreversible adsorption of human serum albumin to hydrogel contact lenses: a study using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, Biomaterials, Vol. 20 (1999) 1345−1354.
 Q. Garrett, R. W. Garrett, B. K. Milthorpe, Lysozyme sorption in hydrogel contact lenses, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol. 40 (1999) 897–903.
 Q. Garrett, B. K. Milthorpe, Human serum albumin adsorption on hydrogel contact lenses in vitro, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol. 37 (1996) 2594–602.
 R. L. Taylor, M. D. P. Willcox, T. J. Williams, J. Verran, Modulation of bacterial adhesion to hydrogel contact lenses by albumin, Optometry & Vision Science, Vol. 75 (1998) 23–29.
 C. R. Arciola, M. C. Maltarello, E. Cenni, A. Pizzoferrato, Disposable contact lenses and bacterial adhesion. in vitro comparison between ionic/high-water-content and non-ionic/low-water-content lenses, Biomaterials, Vol. 16 (1995) 685–690.
 V. Rebeix, F. Sommer, B. Marchin, D. Baude, T. M. Duc, Artificial tear adsorption on soft contact lenses: methods to test surfactant efficiency, Biomaterials, Vol. 21 (2000) 1197–1205.
 D. L. Elbert, J. A. Hubbell, Surface treatments of polymers for biocompatibility, Annual Review of Materials Science, Vol. 26 (1996) 365–394.
 A. F. Vonrecum, T. G. Vankooten, The influence of micro-topography on cellular-response and the implications for silicone implants, Journal of Biomaterial Science, Polymer Edition, Vol. 7 (1995) 181–198.
 M. Wahlgren, T. Arnebrant, Protein adsorption to solid-surfaces, Trends in Biotechnology, Vol. 9 (1991) 201–208.
 Y. A. Han, E. M. Lee, B. C. Ji, The physical properties of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) copolymer hydrogels used as intravaginal rings, Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, Vol. 27 (2009) 359−366.
 N. A. Peppas, W. H. M. Yang, Properties-Based Optimization of the Structure of Polymers for Contact Lens Applications, Contact & Intraocular Lens Medical Journal, Vol. 7 (1981) 300-314.
 A. Opdahl, S. H. Kim, T. S. Koffas, C. Marmo, G. A. Somorjai, Surface mechanical prop-erties of PHEMA contact lenses: Viscoelastic and adhesive property changes on exposure to controlled humidity, Journal of Biomedical Material Research Part A, Vol. 67 (2003) 350-356.
 T. Yu, C. K. Ober, Methods for the Topographical Patterning and Patterned Surface Modification of Hydrogels Based on Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate, Biomacromolecules, Vol. 4 (2003) 1126 –1131.
 A. P. Kumar, D. Depan, N. S. Tomer, R. P. Singh, Nanoscale particles for polymer degradation and stabilization—Trendsand future perspectives, Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 34 (2009) 479–515.
 F. Giacalone, N. Martýn, Fullerene Polymers: Synthesis and Properties, Chemical Review, Vol. 106 (2006) 5136-5190.
 R. M. Ahmed, S. M. El-Bashir, Structure and Physical Properties of Polymer Composite Films Doped with Fullerene Nanoparticles, International Journal of Photoenergy, Vol. 2011 (2011) 1−6.
 J. E. Riggs, Y. P. Sun, Optical Limiting Properties of (60) Fullerene and Methano(60)fullerene Derivative in Solution versus in Polymer Matrix, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 103 (1999) 485-495.
 N. Peng, F. S. M. Leung, Novel Fullerene Materials with Unique Optical Transmission Characteristics, Chemistry of Materials, Vol.16 (2004) 4790−4798.
 A. Debeljković, L. Matija, Đ. Koruga, Characterization of nanophotonic soft contact lenses based on poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and fullerene, Hemijska industrija, Vol. 67 (2013) 861−870.
 Rotlex Contest Plus (IntraOcular Lens Analizer) manual.
 Nidek LM990 manual.