DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE WORLD AND EUROPEAN UNION
Energy stability and security have become one of the most important issues in recent years on planet Earth. Nowadays, worldwide economic, industrial and social development is related to the energy and energy-system that provided great benefits to a society, but the society is paying a high price because of the production and emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. There are numerous climate changes, which pose a threat to each continent, disorder in agriculture, disorder in food production, floods and fires, as well as changes in the ecosystem. Energy stability and security have become one of the most important issues in recent years. Energy is essential for development of any country, notably when it comes to its industry and economy. Without adequate policy operations of the energy sector, it is not possible to achieve industrial or economic progress. Nevertheless, no matter how important energy is for the development, it is only a mechanism for achieving the ultimate goals – sustainable economy, clean environment, high standard of living, prosperity and health of the population. This paper elaborates on and outlines a strategy for energy development of renewable energy sources in the world, as well as in the European Union. It presents in great details the application of new technologies that have led to the development of renewable energy sources: wind-power, solar energy, small hydro power plants, biomass, and their increase in the overall participation of energy production and reduction of fossil fuels in energy production. Investing in new technologies which use renewable energy sources have led to the increase in employment in the world, so that about 6.5 million people in the world have been employed until today. This paper outlines the trend of increasing energy production from RES (renewable energy sources) by investing in any of the abovementioned energy sources, as well as employment for each energy source in the world and the EU-28. Also, the development of renewable energy sources in the future has been presented.
V. Doleček, I. Karabegović, Renewable energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina: situation and perspectives, Contemporary Materials (Renewable Energy Sources), Vol. IV−2 (2013) 152−163.
C. Agrafiotis, Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic reactors, Solar Energy, Vol. 79−4 (2005) 409–421.
L. Anderson, Cooking with Sunshine (The Complete Guide to Solar Cuisine with 150 Easy Sun-Cooked Recipes), Marlowe&Company, 1994.
B. S. Richards, A. I. Schäfer, Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems, Chapter in: I. C. Escobar, A. I. Schäfer, (Eds.) Sustainable Water for the Future – Water versus Desalination, Sustainability Science and Engineering: Defining Principles, Elsevier 2009, 353−374.
Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2014, Frankfurt School-UNEP Cen-tre/BNEF, 2014.
Renewable 2014 Global Status Report, New York, 2014.
Renewable 2013 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2013.
Renewable 2012 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2012.
Renewable 2011 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat , 2011.
Renewable 2010 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2010.
Renewable 2009 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2009.
Renewable 2008 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2008.
Renewable 2005 Global Status Report, DC: Worldwatch Institute. Washington 2005.
Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2014, Frankfurt School-UNEP Cen-tre/BNEF. 2014.
F. Vanek, L. Albright, L. Angenent, Energy Systems Engineering: Evaluation and Implementation, Conveo Publisher Service, New York 2012.
F. Daniels, Direct Use of the Sun's Energy, Ballantine Books 1964.
D. Halacy, The Coming Age of Solar Energy, Harper and Row 1973.
V. D. Hunt, Energy Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company 1979.
K. Karan, Row Orientation Affects Fruit Yield in Field-Grown Okra, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 17−2/3 (2001) 169–174.
M. Leon, Mathematical modeling and thermal performance analysis of unglazed transpired solar collectors, Solar Energy 81−1 (2007) 62–75.
H. Lieth, R. Whittaker, Primary Productivity of the Biosphere, Springer-Verlag1 1975.
A. Meier, Solar chemical reactor technology for industrial production of lime, Solar Energy, Vol. 80−10 (2005) 1355–1362.
D. Mills, Advances in solar thermal electricity technology, Solar Energy, Vol. 76−1-3 (2004) 19–31.
R. Müller, Band-approximated radiative heat transfer analysis of a solar chemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of zinc oxide, Solar Energy, Vol. 81−10 (2007) 1285–1294.
V. Doleček, I. Karabegović, Renewable Energy Sources of Bosnia and Herzegovina: State and Perspectives, 8th International Conference on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts,7.October 2013, Podgorica, Montenegro 2013.
I. Raguzin, Model of cost and profit analysis of biomass usage in electric power production, Master thesis, Faculty of mechanical engineering of Slavonski Brod, Croatia 2011.
D. Šljivac, Z. Šimić, Renewable energy sources, AWERES, Faculty of electric and computers, Zagreb, Croatia 2009.
M. Banjac, Renewable energy sources in Serbia, SREM, Ruma, Serbia 2012.
Benefits of Renewable Energy Use, Union of Concerned Scientists 1999.
G. Granić, M. Željko, Study of energy sector in B&H, Module 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Sarajevo, B&H, 2008.
J. Armstrong, J. Hamrin, What are “Renewable Resources”?, Chapter 1: Renewable Energy Overview, Cost-Effectiveness of Renewable Energy, Organization of American States 2013.
B. K. Hondge, Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, Mississippi State University 2010.
T. Buhrke, R. Wengenmayr, Erneuerbare Energie: Kozepte fur die Energiewende, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim 2012.
Report of analysis of environmental technology state in B&H, Ministry of development and economy, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 2012.
M. Đonlagić, Renewable energy sources, Center for energy and ecology, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina 2010.
N. Jenkis, R. Allan, P. Crossley, G. Strbac, Embedded generation, The Institution of Electrical Engineering, London 2000.
European commission, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport: (2001) COM 2001/77/EC Directive on Electricity production from Renewable Energy Sources.
N. Đereg, Z. Kolmar, et al., Renewable energy sources in Serbia, Subotica, Serbia 2008.
Ž. Knežiček, Strategic directions of energy efficiency in TK, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011.
I. Dobrilović, Energy sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina, INFOKOM, Vol. 6−55 (Sarajevo 2013) 24−27.
IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Cli-mate Change: Fourth Assessment Report, Synthesis report 2007, 52.
S. Car, Renewable energy sources, Faculty of electric and computers, Zagreb, Croatia 2009.
WWF The Energy Report 2010, p. 24.
International Energy Agency (IEA), Head of Publications Service, 9 rue de la Fédération, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France (www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/2008.../WEO2006)
World Small Hydropower Deve-lopment Report 2013, Published in 2013 by United Nations Industrial Development Organization and International Center on Small Hydro Power, 2013.
AEBIOM, Europe An Bioenergx Outlook, 2014.
AEBIOM, Annual Report, 2013.
http://www.wbdg.org (5. 10. 2014)
http://www.inhabitat.com (18. 11. 2014)
http://www.q-solar.com (22. 11. 2014)
http://www.klubmamut-wordpress.com (12. 12. 2013)
http://www.bpz.hr (05. 01. 2015)
http://www.intrade.co.ba (07. 01. 2015)