• Milesa Ž. Srećković University of Belgrade, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Andrei A. Ionin P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskiy Prospekt, 119991, Moscow, Russia
  • Aco J. Janićijević University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Aleksandar R. Bugarinović Telekom Srpske, 76300 Bijeljina, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Stanko M. Ostojić University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Milovan M. Janićijević Metalac A. D., 32300 Gornji Milanovac, Kneza Aleksandra 212, Serbia
  • Nada V. Ratković Kovačević Technical College of Vocational Studies, Požarevac, Nemanjina 2, Serbia



During six decades of quantum electronics, a vast majority of new types of quantum generators have been developed. Although the principle of population inversion has united different ranges of electromagnetic spectra (and respective quantum generators), the existence of the title laser without the population inversion, makes that the exception had confirmed the rule, i. e. that this title deserves to be discussed further. Developing of formalisms describing the operation of quantum generators, by now have produced several approaches, which must have a quantum mechanics base. For the practical reasons, negative coefficient of absorption is acquired using classic electromagnetics as well, however for the population purposes, quantum representation must be entered.

A few levels of formalisms will be set in this paper, linked to quantum generators accenting the optical portion of the spectra. The lowest level descriptions are based on lumped circuits. This could be expanded to equivalents of other physical problems, using program packages developed for the electrical engineering application purposes (Spice, etc.). Schematics are defined at the macro as well as micro equivalent levels (atomic – electronic levels). The kinetic equations with simpler approach will be considered as well as simplified laser equations based on quantum/ semi-quantum approach. The use of Fourier analysis or other appropriate transformations leads to formulating the main five laser equations which serve as the base for various working regimes of quantum generators and amplifiers (free generation regime, Q switch, synchronization, operation with filters, two modes regime, regime with losses, etc.). The Lyapunov stability theorem has to be included here, etc.

For some of the chosen types of quantum generator, analytical modeling will be analyzed as well as the results of program packages developed for the lasers dynamics, regimes and parameters. The systems pumped with electronic beams (relativistic) will be considered and the nuclear physics statements discussed which must be included at the beginning, in order to consider further necessary parts of the condensed – solid state theory and laser techniques, after slowing down towards thermal energies.

Existing program packages provide fast modeling and visualization of laser energy distribution, temperature, modes, etc. in active material with or without the resonator. A modeling will be performed for the specified geometries and a temperature distribution in active material will be captured during operation of a chosen laser system. Different pump geometries will be compared. Contemporary lasers with the shortest existing pulse durations demand new formalisms. Areas of nonlinear optics and quantum electrody-namics, Glauber states and similar, are areas that have to be included. Two main formalisms thermodynamical and quantum mechanical with transition probabilities using perturbation methods and secondary quantization naturally had to be complemented if the Brillouin, Raman, Compton, soliton, fiber and other lasers are included more generally.


N. G. Basov, G. D. Hager, A. A. Ionin, A. A. Kotkov, A. K. Kurnosov, J. E. McCord, Efficient Pulsed First Overtone CO Laser Operating Within the Spectral Range of 2.5-4.2, IEEE J Q E,Vol. 36−7 (2000) 810−823.

J. E. McCord, A. A. Ionin, S.P.Phipps, P.G.Crowell, A.I.Lampson, J.K.McIver, Frequency-tunable optically pumped carbon monoxide laser, IEEE J Q E, Vol.36−9 (2000) 1041−1052.

A. A. Ionin, I. O. Kinyaevskiy, Y. M. Klimachev, et al., Cascaded carbon monoxide laser frequency conversion into the 4.3–4.9 μm range in a single ZnGeP 2 crystal, Opt. lett., Vol. 37−14 (2012) 2838−2840.

A. A. Ionin, I. O. Kinyaevskiy, Y. M. Klimachev, A. A. Kotkov, Frequency conversion of radiation of IR molecular gas lasers in nonlinear crystals, A rev.Opt.& Spectr., Vol. 119−3 (2015) 356−362.

Y. M. Andreev, O. V. Budilova, A. A .Ionin, I. O. Kinyaevskiy, Y. M. Klimachev, Frequency conversion of mode-locked and Q-switched CO laser radiation with efficiency up to 37%, Opt. Lett., Vol. 40−13 (2015) 2997−3000.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, A. A. Kotkov, L. V. Seleznev, Pulsed electron-beam sustained discharge CO laser on oxygen-containing gas mixtures, Quant. Electr., Vol. 38−2 (2004) 115−124.

V. D. Zvorykin, N. V. Didenko, A. A. Ionin, I. V. Kholin, A. V. Konyashchenko, GAR-PUN-MTW: A hybrid Ti:Sapphire/KrF laser facility for simultaneous amplification of subpicosecond/nanosecond pulses relevant to fast-ignition ICF concept, Laser and Particle Beams, Vol. 25−03 (2007) 435−451b.

Yu. V. Baiborodin, Laser Technique, Višča škola, Kiev, (In Russian), 1981.

I. R. Chen, Principles of Nonlinear optics, Mir, Moscow, (in Russian), 1988.

A. Tarasov, Laser Physics, Mir, Moscow, (in Russian), 1983.

M. Srećković, Solved problems and examples in Quantum electronics, Građevinska knjiga, (in Serbian), Belgrade,1993.

М. Srećković, S. Ostojić, S. Ristić, J. Ilić, V.Arsoski, Solved problems and examples in quantum electronics, laser techniques and neighboring areas and application, Technical Faculty, Čačak, 2007.

I. Pahomov. A. B. Cibulya, Design of optical systems of lasers devices, Rad i svyaz, Moskva, 1986.

A. Yariv, Optical electronics, CBS College Publishing, New York, 1985.

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics, Prentice Hall, Englewood, Cliffs, New Yersey 0763, 1995.

M. Srećković, Scripta from laser technique, Int.material, 2007.

G. L. Kiselev, Devices for quantum electronics, Visšaya škola, (in Russian), Moscow, 1980.

E. Rosencher, B. Vinter, Optoelectronics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.

Optoelectronics, quantum electronics and applied optics, (in Russian), Mecniereba, Tbilisi, 1983.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers, Mode calculations in unstable resonators with flowing saturable gain: 2. Fast Fourier transform method, Appl. Opt., Vol.14 (1975) 1874−1889.

b) A. E. Siegman, Lasers, Oxford: Oxford University, 1986.

W. E. Lamb, Theory of Optical Maser, Phys. Rev., Vol.134−A (1964) 1429−1450.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, McGraw-Hill, 1968, 49−56.

M. Srećković, V. Zarubica, A. Janićije-vić, S. Jevtić, M. Dinulović, V. Fotev,, Materijali za savremene kvantne generatore i komponente, Conference Proceedings „Contemporary Materials“ Banja Luka, 2012, 157−189.

J. Kaplan, Designing Lasers with Pum-ped Power Charts Electronics, Vol.36−52 (1963) 9−16.

P. Mestre, M. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics, Springer, Berlin, 1985.

IEE Proceedings, J, Optoelectronics, Vol. 132−1, Part J, February 1985.

H. Lv, Z. Li, T. Yang, Ch. Huang, Small-signal circuit modeling for a semiconductor optical amplifier monolithically integrated with a sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector laser, Opt.Applic., Vol.42−1 (2012) 56−68.

O. V. Bogdankevič, S. A. Darznek, P. G. Eliseev, Semiconductor laser, Nauka, (In Russian), Moscow, 1976.

G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long Wavelenght Semiconductor Lasers, Van Nostrand, Nеw York, 1986.

M. Srećković, Stimulated effects of electromagnetic radiations, particles, quantum generators, and nonclassical excitations sources, Eng.Phys.,Vol.26 (1985) 66−77.

N. Kartalović, K. Stanković, N. Zdjelarević, I. Knežević, Radation compability of electrical components and devices, Zavod za fiziku tehn. fakulteta, El.Inst. N.Tesla, (In Serbian), Belgrade, 2016.

B. Veselinović, M. Srećković, I.Veselinović, Laser Modeling in Q switch Regime, ICEST, Ohrid, 2007.

М. Srećković, Problems and nonspecific effects of fiber optics in view of linear and nonlinear phenomena, Fibers and Sensors, SITJ, (In Serbian ), Belgrade, 1991, 294−324.

S. Alam, Lasers without Inversion and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, SPIE Press, Bellingham, 1999.

M. Srećković, Lasers technique, Sprint, (In Serbian), Novi Sad, 1998.

M. Srećković, B. Kaluđerović, A. Bugarinović, M .Janićijević, Laser interaction and textile and carbon material characterization by laser, StudioM, (In Serbian), Belgrade, 2015.

M. Srećković, I. Đurđević, B. Veselinović, Design in laser techniques and quantum electronics theory and applications, Monograph Faculty of Techn. Sci. FTN, Machine design, 2008, 335−361.

I. Veselinović, M. Srećković, B. Veselinović, A. Đurđević, B. Stojković, Analyzis of nonlinear efficiency of conversion frequency, YUINFO, Kopaonik, 2007.

I. Veselinović, Coherent Light effects to selected organic materials, Master Thesis, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University Belgrade, (In Serbian), 2009.

B. Veselinović, M. Srećković, I. Veselinović, M. Vlajnić, Modeling of Semiconductor Laser Characteristics, YUINFO, Kopaonik, 2007.

I. Veselinović, M. Srećković, B. Veselinović, A .Đurđević, B. Stojković, Nonlinear Frequency Conversion Efficiency Analysis, YUINFO, Kopaonik, 2007.

B. Veselinović, M. Srećković, I. Veselinović, M. Vlajnić, Modeling of Quantum Generators and Amplifiers on Semiconductors Materials, ICESR, Ohrid, 2007.

M. Srećković, B. Đokić, A. Kovačević, Numerical principles and problems in the design and implementation of some modern quantum generators, machine design, FTN, Ed. S. Kuzmanović, Novi Sad, 2009, 63−68.

B. Đokić, Technical and Measuring Aspects of Handling, Shaping and Corrections of Laser Beams, Master Thesis, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University Belgrade, (In Serbian), 2005.

B. Đokić, M. Srećković, A. Kovačević, J. Mirčevski, N. Bundaleski, Applications of programme packages for laser beam shaping and their role in education, 51.Conf. ETRAN 2007, (CD), 2007.

B. F. Belostockij, Yu. V. Ovčinikov, Basics of laser technique,, 1972.

A. M. Kugushev, N. S. Golubeva, Principles of Radioelectronics, Mir, (in Russian), Moscow, 1979.

H. Haken, Light, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1985.



link situs slot gacor terbaru Situs toto togel 4D Toto Situs agen toto togel 4D Situs toto togel terpercaya slot deposit pulsa bandar togel 4d bandar togel 4d situs togel slot bandar togel resmi bandar togel 4d slot online gacor bandar slot pulsa situs togel 4d situs togel macau bandar togel macau situs togel hk judi slot online situs toto togel 4d situs toto togel keluaran toto togel slot togel 4d situs toto togel toto togel resmi togel resmi 4d bandar togel 4d toto macau 4d bandar togel 4d slot deposit pulsa situs toto togel 4d situs togel terpercaya situs toto togel situs slot online situs togel 4d situs togel toto toto togel 4d slot togel 4d situs togel terpercaya togel toto slot bandar togel terpercaya toto togel situs toto 4d resmi situs togel toto 4d bandar toto macau terpercaya bo toto togel 4d resmi agen togel 4d