• Milesa Ž. Srećković University of Belgrade, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Andrei A. Ionin P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskiy Prospekt, 119991, Moscow, Russia
  • Aco J. Janićijević University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Aleksandar R. Bugarinović Telekom Srpske, 76300 Bijeljina, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Stanko M. Ostojić University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Milovan M. Janićijević Metalac A. D., 32300 Gornji Milanovac, Kneza Aleksandra 212, Serbia
  • Nada V. Ratković Kovačević Technical College of Vocational Studies, Požarevac, Nemanjina 2, Serbia



During six decades of quantum electronics, a vast majority of new types of quantum generators have been developed. Although the principle of population inversion has united different ranges of electromagnetic spectra (and respective quantum generators), the existence of the title laser without the population inversion, makes that the exception had confirmed the rule, i. e. that this title deserves to be discussed further. Developing of formalisms describing the operation of quantum generators, by now have produced several approaches, which must have a quantum mechanics base. For the practical reasons, negative coefficient of absorption is acquired using classic electromagnetics as well, however for the population purposes, quantum representation must be entered.

A few levels of formalisms will be set in this paper, linked to quantum generators accenting the optical portion of the spectra. The lowest level descriptions are based on lumped circuits. This could be expanded to equivalents of other physical problems, using program packages developed for the electrical engineering application purposes (Spice, etc.). Schematics are defined at the macro as well as micro equivalent levels (atomic – electronic levels). The kinetic equations with simpler approach will be considered as well as simplified laser equations based on quantum/ semi-quantum approach. The use of Fourier analysis or other appropriate transformations leads to formulating the main five laser equations which serve as the base for various working regimes of quantum generators and amplifiers (free generation regime, Q switch, synchronization, operation with filters, two modes regime, regime with losses, etc.). The Lyapunov stability theorem has to be included here, etc.

For some of the chosen types of quantum generator, analytical modeling will be analyzed as well as the results of program packages developed for the lasers dynamics, regimes and parameters. The systems pumped with electronic beams (relativistic) will be considered and the nuclear physics statements discussed which must be included at the beginning, in order to consider further necessary parts of the condensed – solid state theory and laser techniques, after slowing down towards thermal energies.

Existing program packages provide fast modeling and visualization of laser energy distribution, temperature, modes, etc. in active material with or without the resonator. A modeling will be performed for the specified geometries and a temperature distribution in active material will be captured during operation of a chosen laser system. Different pump geometries will be compared. Contemporary lasers with the shortest existing pulse durations demand new formalisms. Areas of nonlinear optics and quantum electrody-namics, Glauber states and similar, are areas that have to be included. Two main formalisms thermodynamical and quantum mechanical with transition probabilities using perturbation methods and secondary quantization naturally had to be complemented if the Brillouin, Raman, Compton, soliton, fiber and other lasers are included more generally.


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