AUTOCHTHONOUS BREEDS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND CONSERVATION MEASURES

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  • Zoran MALETIC Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Department of Agriculture, Food Industry and Rural Development, Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Recently, highly productive breeds of various species of domestic animals have
been used in livestock production, which has resulted in the destruction of
indigenous breeds of domestic animals around the world, even in our area. This is
the first reason why indigenous races and strains have been endangered. Another
reason is that domestic, indigenous breeds were crossed with specialized breeds,
which were imported, and in that way their genetic diversity was negatively
affected. Resistance is lost, adaptation to the conditions in which they were created,
the ability to survive in nature. Indigenous breeds of different species of domestic
animals, which are recognized in the Republic of Srpska (B&H) are gatačko cattle
and buša (cattle), Vlašić pramenka, Podveleška pramenka, Kupres pramenka
(sheep), domestic Balkan horned goat (goats), Bosnian mountain horse (horses),
mangulica (pigs) and pogrmuša hen or živičarka hen (poultry). By acceding to
international conventions, B&H /Republic of Srpska has committed itself to
establishing a system of measures that will enable the conservation of biological
diversity and the protection of indigenous and endangered breeds of domestic
animals. The choice of a strategy for the conservation of diversity, the
establishment of an adequate conservation scheme, and the implementation of a
conservation strategy are some of the key elements of any process for the
conservation of genetic diversity. Preservation of autochthonous and protected
breeds of domestic animals is possible through preservation in the original
environment (in situ) and preservation outside the original environment (ex situ).
There is a possibility of combining these models of conservation of animal genetic
resources.

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2021-10-18

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