Influence of temperature and sowing depth on growth and development of annual flowering species


  • Monika Tkalec Faculty of Agriculture Osijek, Hrvatska
  • Nada Parađiković Faculty of Agriculture Osijek, Hrvatska
  • Jasna Kraljičak Faculty of Agriculture Osijek, Hrvatska
  • Marina Tepeš Faculty of Agriculture Osijek, Hrvatska
  • Svjetlana Zeljković Faculty of Agriculture, Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, BiH



Annuals are plants that germinate, mature, bloom, set seed and die in one growing season. They are sometimes referred to as bedding plants because they provide colour and fill in garden beds. This research was conducted in the laboratory of the Department for Plant Production at the Agricultural Faculty in Osijek. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two different temperatures (18 and 24°C) and sowing depth (2 and 3 cm) on germination of annual flower species. For the purpose of this study, two types of annual flower seeds were used, seeds of floral species Dahlia and Zinnia. Seeds were sown in trays at two different depths (2 and 3 cm) and kept in a chamber under controlled conditions at two different temperatures (18 and 24ºC). After three weeks of controlled conditions, the stems and root of young plants were measured. Root length of both flower species was significantly influenced by sowing depth and temperature (p = 0.01). Dahlia stem length was affected by sowing depth and temperature (p=0.05) while the length of Zinnia stems was not influenced by either temperature or planting depth.