Export competitiveness of milk and dairy products of the Republic of Srpska on the international market
Извозна конкурентност млијека и млијечних производа Републике Српске на међународном тржишту
The aim of this research is an analysis of the export competitiveness of the milk and dairy products of the Republic of Srpska on the international market. Indicators analysed in the paper are the net trade index (NTI) and the index of contribution to the trade balance (CTBI). Additionally, the paper investigates the type of external competitiveness of the milk and dairy products according to four criteria based on a comparison of export and import unit prices. All indicators have been calculated based on statistical data about the foreign trade of milk and dairy products and referred to the period 2015-2021. In the total export structure of the agri-food sector, milk and dairy products have significant participation in an average of 10.40%. CEFTA and EU countries as the major market destinations for milk and dairy products have recorded an average share of 20.30% and 4.81% in the total agri-food export of the Republic of Srpska. Unlike the EU countries, the analysis of the NTI showed the trade of milk and dairy products between the Republic of Srpska and the world as well as the CEFTA countries was competitive. The values calculated for the CTBI indicated positive contribution of milk and dairy products to the trade balance between the Republic of Srpska and the CEFTA countries as well as to the total trade balance. In trade with the EU these products showed comparative disadvantages. The results of the analysis based on the comparison of a unit of export and import prices indicated market segmentation of milk and dairy products into three parts: dominated price competitiveness in the world market, price and quality competitiveness in the CEFTA market, and predominantly price non-competitiveness on the EU market. The analysis of competitiveness type indicates the need for improvement of the export structure of the dairy sector towards favouring higher value-added products, especially on the EU market.
Key words: milk and dairy products, export competitiveness, Republic of Srpska, foreign trade